Part, part whole models are used during addition and subtraction activities. Children use two or three smaller circles when adding numbers together, with the bigger circle being used for the answer. When subtracting, children work backwards. They use the bigger circle for their starting amount, subtract the given amount away into one of the smaller circles and see what numbers are left over. This can be extended to understand how to find out the inverse and is useful for problem solving.
This model helps children understand the links and relationships between a whole number and its component parts. It helps them to interpret, visualise and solve a range of problems.
Number lines are used as a visual aid during activities such as: number recognition, number ordering, counting on or back, finding one more or one less and adding and subtracting, for estimating and rounding. These can take many forms dependant on the needs and skill levels of the child.
Ten frames are used during number recognition, number bonds, addition and subtraction, place value and counting activities. They help the children to know that if filled, each frame is worth ten.
Children have the opportunity to count with a range of things.These include: cubes, bears, pasta, dinosaurs, counters, etc. The children are used to suing the equipment when they need concrete or real things to physically add or take away.
Place value counters have the numbers 1, 10 and 100 on them. Children can make a two or three digit number using the counters. They can also be used to support understanding of adding and subtracting when used with a place value chart.
Straws are used singly or in bunches of ten to help with addition and subtraction and for place value.
Base 10 is apparatus used for a range of activities. It helps with addition, subtraction and place value in particular. It is especially useful when adding or subtracting bridging 10 and exchanging tens for ones is required.
Place value dice are another way of helping children to understand place value, addition and subtraction. They either have a single digit or a 2-digit multiple of 10. The children roll both dice and put the two together to make a 2-digit number.
Bar models are a visual representation of a problem or idea that can be used for any of the four operation: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In a word problem, bar models have the added benefit of helping children to decide which operations they can use or how to visualise a problem.
The range of apparatus, models and resources is used throughout the school at different levels.
Why do we use models and images?
Using models and images helps us to:
- Secure a child’s understanding of what, for example, ten looks like
- Understand how addition and subtraction are linked
- Support the teacher in recognising where and why mistakes are being made. Sometimes, the errors that children make can be addressed by using models. For example, making 13 and 31 would show if a child has understood the different values of the two numbers.
What can you do at home to support your child?
Often the simplest ideas can be the most effective. Here are just a few examples, but you may be able to think of more!
- Memory games such as pairs
- Cards (Snap)
- Board Games (using a dice)
- Shape hunt
- Cooking (weighing and measuring)
- Sing nursery rhymes
The children have logins and passwords for:
Links to policies
Click here for our Mathematics Policy
Click here for our Maths Mastery Statement